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Tuesday, August 07, 2018

GRAMMAR PILLS: CASE OF PRONOUNS + POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES

What is case?
Cambridge dictionary ⇒ case is “any of the various types to which a noun (or pronoun) can belong, according to the work it does in a sentence (clause), shown in some languages by a special word ending; for example: the accusative/dative case.” 
Llamamos 'case' a la forma que toma un nombre / sustantivo / pronombre según la función que tiene en la oración; por ejemplo: caso acusativo / caso dativo.

 What is a pronoun?

It’s a word that replaces a noun or noun phraseThe noun or noun phrase replaced is called the 'antecedent' of the pronoun, and the pronoun must have a clear antecedent and must agree in person and number with it.

 HOW MANY CASES OF PRONOUNS ARE THERE in English?

💡 Quick answer ⇒ There are 3 CASES:
1. SUBJECTIVE Pronoun as SUBJECT / SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT:
We are friends. (Nosotros somos amigos.)
→ I am Italian. (Yo soy italiana.)
He is  a lawyer. (Él es abogado.)

2. OBJECTIVE Pronoun as OBJECT:
 That book is for us. (Ese libro es para nosotros.)
 Mary invited me to the party. (Mary me invitó a la fiesta.)
 I'll give him your new email address. (Le daré tu nueva dirección de correo electrónico.)

3. POSSESSIVE Pronoun as POSSESSIVE:
 That book is ours. (Ese libro es nuestro.)
 Your bag is heavier than mine. (Tu bolso es más pesado que el mío.)
 Whose book is this? It's his. (¿De quién es este libro? Es suyo.)

💡 EXTENDED ANSWER ⇒ There are 3 CASES:

1. SUBJECTIVE CASE ⇒ The pronoun is in the subjective case when it works as the SUBJECT or the SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT in a clause.
Usamos el caso subjetivo del pronombre cuando funciona como sujeto o como complemento predicativo subjetivo.

→ {[They] [have known each other for twenty years].} (Ellos)
     Subject
→ {[Peter and I] [went to the cinema yesterday].} (Peter y yo)
         Subject

→ (Dialogue at the door) Who is it? –It’s Peter and I(Peter y yo)
                                                    Subjective Complement

🔺WARNING: En inglés informal, es muy común responder a la pregunta “Who is it?” diciendo “It’s me!”. Este uso es tan común que responder “It’s I!” puede sonar demasiado formal o anticuadoSin embargo, en ámbitos académicos, literarios o para exámenes internacionales (tipo GMAT, entre otros), la forma preferida será “It’s I!” ya que para el complemento predicativo subjetivo = subjective complement, debemos usar el subjective case of pronouns.

2. OBJECTIVE CASE The pronoun is in the objective case when it works as an OBJECT (Direct Object, Indirect Object or Object of the Preposition) in a clause.
Usamos el caso objetivo del pronombre (dativo, acusativo o pronombre preposicional) cuando funciona como objeto.

{[Mary] [invited (Peter and me) (to her party)].} (a Peter y a )
                               Direct Object
{[I] [invited (Peter and her) (to my party)].} (a Peter y a ella)
                        Direct Object

{[Mary] [told (Peter and me) (that she’s pregnant)].} (a Peter y a )
                         Indirect Object
{[I] [told (Peter and her) (that I'm pregnant)].} (a Peter y a ella)
                  Indirect Object

{[Mary] [bought (a present) (for Peter and me)].} (para Peter y para )
                                              Object of the Preposition
{[I] [bought (a present) (for Peter and her)].} (para Peter y para ella)
                                         Object of the Preposition

3. POSSESSIVE CASE ⇒ The pronoun is in the possessive case when it replaces a noun phrase expressing possession.

Usamos el caso posesivo del pronombre cuando reemplaza a un sintagma nominal que expresa posesión.

 That car is mine. (es mío)
                 Possessive (it replaces 'my car')
 Those books are theirs. (son suyos)
                         Possessive (it replaces 'their books')

🔺WARNING: Notice the difference between POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES and POSSESSIVE PRONOUNSRemember ⇒ A pronoun replaces a noun or noun phrase / An adjective describes a noun or noun phrase.

Whose car is this? (¿De quién es este coche?)
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
It’s [my car]. (Es mi coche.)
It’s mine. (Es mío.)
It’s [your car]. (Es tu coche.)
It’s yours. (Es tuyo.)
It’s [his car]. (Es su coche.)
It’s his. (Es suyo.)
It’s [her car]. (Es su coche.)
It’s hers. (Es suyo.)
its
its
our
ours
your
yours
their
theirs

💡 SUMMING UP...
CASE OF PRONOUNS
ADJECTIVES
SUBJECTIVE
OBJECTIVE
POSSESSIVE
POSSESSIVE
I
me
mine
my
you
you
yours
your
he
him
his
his
she
her
hers
her
it
it
its
its
we
us
ours
our
you
you
yours
your
they
them
theirs
their
SIMILAR FORMS ARE HIGHLIGHTED

RELATIVE and INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
SUBJECTIVE
OBJECTIVE
POSSESSIVE
who
whom
whose
which
which
whose


WHO OR WHOM? (From Oxford Dictionaries)
📌 Exercise ⇒ WHO or WHOM? (Fill in each blank with who, whom, or whose.)
PERSONAL PRONOUNS (From Oxford Dictionaries)
🔗 SEE ALSO:

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