Words can be classified according to their meaning and function and divided into different categories or parts of speech. Some books list up to 8 or 9 parts of speech depending on whether they take determiners as adjectives or as a separate category. Others divide verbs into lexical verbs and auxiliary verbs. In my posts, for the sake of simplification, I’ll be taking determiners as adjectives and treating verbs as a single part of speech (unless otherwise stated), so the 8 major parts of speech in English grammar are noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.
However, an adverb can also describe an adjective (I’m truly sorry) or another adverb (You speak Spanish very well.)
In this post, I’m going to include only finite and non-finite verbs because I think this classification is the most relevant regarding parts of speech:
⟶A NON-FINITE VERB (verboid or verbal) also expresses an action; however, although it can have voice (active / passive) + aspect (perfect / continuous), it never has tense, i.e. it is not conjugated, and therefore, it never works as a verb in a clause (it will always work as a noun, an adjective or an adverb). Non-finite verbs are:
- The to-infinitive: to break, to be broken, to have been writing, etc.
- The infinitive without to, bare infinitive or base form: be, be broken, etc.
- The gerund: studying, having studied, writing, etc.
- The present participle: studying, having studied, writing, etc.
- The past participle: written, studied, broken, etc.
⟶COORDINATING CONJUNCTION: The action of joining similar structures is called coordination, so a coordinating conjunction joins similar structures, i.e. structures that are at the same level (clause with clause; noun phrase with noun phrase; adjectival phrase with adjectival phrase, etc.): E.g. fish and chips, poor but honest, for better or worse.
- BASIC STRUCTURES 1: THE SENTENCE
- GRAMMAR PILLS: CASE OF PRONOUNS + POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
- GRAMMAR PILLS: I or ME? + 'Peter and I' or 'Peter and me'?
- GRAMMAR PILLS: How to use articles - A/AN, THE and ZERO article
- GRAMMAR PILLS: OTHER OR ANOTHER? – OTHERS, THE OTHER AND THE OTHERS
- GRAMMAR PILLS: HE/SHE or THEY? - GENDER INCLUSIVE LANGUAGE
- A BRIEF HISTORY OF SINGULAR 'THEY' (From Oxford English Dictionary Blog)
- GRAMMAR PILLS: ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
- GRAMMAR PILLS: MID-POSITION ADVERBS
- GRAMMAR PILLS: GOOD OR WELL?